synchronising connectivity everywhere

Product

TCXO Overview

TCXO Selection

Rakon has a wide range of high TCXO solutions, from highly stable products for mass volume consumer applications through to industry leading ultra-stable products for more demanding applications.

Rakon's commitment to quality and high performance has meant it has become the default standard for consumer GPS, emergency beacons, telecommunications infrastructure and many other performance critical applications.

VCXO Overview

VCXO Selection

A range of solutions are available with frequencies up to 1500MHz with CMOS, LVPECL or LVDS outputs.

Rakon has expertise in high performance, low jitter, low phase noise VCXOs for demanding applications, including telecommunications and test and measurement.

Rakon also offer commercial products such as a 27 MHz VCXO in 5.0 x 3.2 and 7.0 x 5.0 mm packages for video applications.

XO Overview

 XO Selection

A range of solutions are available with frequencies up to 700MHz with CMOS, PECL or LVDS outputs.

Rakon has expertise in high performance, low jitter, low phase noise XOs for demanding applications, including telecommunications and test and measurement.

Rakon also offer commercial products such as a 27 MHz VCXO in 5.0 x 3.2 and 7.0 x 5.0 mm packages for video applications.

OCXO Overview (2)

OCXO Selection

Through years of development and optimisation of electronic circuitry and crystal design, Rakon offers a world leading range of OCXO products with unparalleled performance.

Rakon has a complete range of precision solutions from OCXOs capable of replacing expensive Rubidium clocks in SDH/SONET Stratum 2 applications through to low profile oven oscillator products. Rakon’s self calibrating OCXOs can maintain stabilities of better than ±16 ppb

(1.6 x 10-8) over the product’s entire life time and can achieve stabilities of less than 0.05 ppb (5 x 10-11) over temperature.

Rakon’s CFPODO series ‘super single oven’ OCXOs deliver performance as good or better than competing double oven OCXOs, but from a smaller low cost device. The CFPODO offers stability of ±0.1 ppb (±1.0 x 10-10) over its operating temperature range, while its superior stability under all operating conditions yields 24 hour holdover better than 7µs. It is suitable as a frequency source and time keeping reference for all synchronization systems. A self calibrating version is available.

Other OCXO products include high precision, low phase noise and low profile ovens. Rakon specialises in delivering customised solutions to suit a wide variety of applications including network timing & synchronisation, base stations, telecoms infrastructure commercial, industrial , military and space qualified requirements.

OCXO Overview

OCXO Selection

Through years of development and optimisation of electronic circuitry and crystal design, Rakon offers a world leading range of OCXO products with unparalleled performance.

Rakon has a complete range of precision solutions from OCXOs capable of replacing expensive Rubidium clocks in SDH/SONET Stratum 2 applications through to low profile oven oscillator products. Rakon’s self calibrating OCXOs can maintain stabilities of better than ±16 ppb

(1.6 x 10-8) over the product’s entire life time and can achieve stabilities of less than 0.05 ppb (5 x 10-11) over temperature.

Rakon’s CFPODO series ‘super single oven’ OCXOs deliver performance as good or better than competing double oven OCXOs, but from a smaller low cost device. The CFPODO offers stability of ±0.1 ppb (±1.0 x 10-10) over its operating temperature range, while its superior stability under all operating conditions yields 24 hour holdover better than 7µs. It is suitable as a frequency source and time keeping reference for all synchronization systems. A self calibrating version is available.

Other OCXO products include high precision, low phase noise and low profile ovens. Rakon specialises in delivering customised solutions to suit a wide variety of applications including network timing & synchronisation, base stations, telecoms infrastructure commercial, industrial , military and space qualified requirements.

SAW Overview

SAW Selection

Rakon specialises in the design and manufacture of very high performance SAW filters, specifically for the space, defence and other high reliability markets.

Quartz Crystal Overview

Quartz Crystal Selection

Rakon has over 40 years experience in crystal design and today manufactures a range of AT, Y and SC cut crystals in a variety of industry standard and ultra miniature SMD package sizes. Rakon’s patented HiG™ crystals can withstand shocks of greater than 20,000G and are extremely resistant to frequency noise induced by vibration.

Application Notes

The following are a list of whitepapers and articles prepared by Rakon in answer to various questions from customers. They are presented here for your reference, should you have any specific questions please contact us at any time.

Measurement of Phase Noise for the Ultra Low Noise Surface Acoustic Wave (ULN SAW) oscillators

Rakon ULN SAW oscillators exhibit exceptional phase noise performance at frequencies above 300 MHz. This application note gives best practice advice on how to measure the phase noise in ultra low noise surface acoustic wave (ULN SAW) oscillators.

iconMeasurement of phase noise for OCSO

Guidelines for use of Mercury™ and Mercury+™ OCXOs in Network Timing

This application note gives best practice advice on how to optimise the performance of Rakon's miniature Mercury™ and Mercury™+ OCXOs in network timing and synchronisation applications (date of issue: 2016-09-14).

icon Guidelines for use of Mercury and Mercury+ 2016-v2

Guidelines for use of 7x5 mm Network Timing TCXOs

This application note gives best practice advice on how to optimise the wander performance of applications using Rakon’s 7x5 mm ‘Pluto’ TCXOs.

iconGuidelines for use of 7050 network timing TCXO

Rakon DCPSS: Radar Upgrade Solution

Military Embedded Systems magazine article Jan/Feb 2013 Radar Special Feature Q & A:

Will there be more opportunities for embedded Commercial-Off-the-Shelf suppliers in radar upgrades and new platforms?

icon Rakon Radar Upgrade Solution Q&A (699.15 kB)

Single Transistor Crystal Oscillator Circuits

For an electronic circuit to oscillate there are two criteria which must be satisfied. It must contain an amplifier with sufficient gain to overcome the losses of the feedback network (Quartz Crystal in this case) and the phase shift around the whole circuit is 0o or some integer multiple of 360o. To design a crystal oscillator the above has to be true but there are a myriad of other considerations including crystal power dissipation, unwanted mode suppression, crystal loading (the actual impedance the crystal sees once oscillation has started) and the introduction of a non-linearity in the gain to limit the oscillation build-up.

icon Download Single Transistor Crystal Oscillator Circuits application note here (45.26 kB)

 

IC Crystal Oscillator Circuits

The majority of ICs with built in crystal oscillator circuits use the Gated Pierce design where the oscillator is built around a single CMOS inverting gate. For oscillator applications this is usually a single inverting stage comprising one P channel and one N channel enhancement-mode MOSFET, more commonly known in the digital world as an Un-Buffered Inverter (see Fig.1). It is possible to use a Buffered Inverter (usually comprising three P-N MOSFET pairs in series) but the associated gain of many thousands will lead to a potentially less stable finished oscillator.

icon Download IC Crystal Oscillator Circuits application note here (82.2 kB)

 

Time Keeping with Quartz Crystals

“The only reason for time is so that everything doesn't happen at once only assume he wasn’t talking about synchronised global networks when he made this comment!

icon Download Time Keeping with Quartz Crystals application note here (557.69 kB)

 

Phase Noise and Jitter in Crystal Oscillators

Before we can cover the sources of Phase Noise / Jitter in Crystal Oscillators we need to de-mystify some of the wording associated with the measurement, so let’s start with a simple description of Phase Noise and Jitter.

icon Download Phase Noise and Jitter in Crystal Oscillators application note here (141.26 kB)

 

Relationship between Phase Noise and Jitter

 

Phase Noise and Jitter are both ways of describing the stability of an oscillator. Phase Noise describes the stability in the frequency domain whilst jitter describes the stability in the time domain. The choice of which domain to consider the oscillators stability is usually application dependant. RF (Radio Frequency) Engineers working in Radar, Base Station design etc. will be interested in Phase Noise as poor Phase Noise performance will affect up/down conversions and channel spacing. Digital Engineers working in Time Division Multiplexing (the majority of modern Telecoms infrastructure) will be interested in jitter as poor jitter performance will result in network slips and excessive re-send traffic.

icon Relationship Between PN and Jitter
 

Relationship between Phase Noise and Bit Error Ratio (BER)

As stated in the article ‘relationship between phase noise and jitter' the Phase Noise of a stable crystal oscillator can be converted to an Rms jitter figure. This Rms jitter figure can be analysed further to show the contribution the crystal oscillator makes to the overall system Bit Error Ratio.

icon Download Relationship between Phase Noise and Bit Error Ratio (BER) application note here (260.89 kB)

 

Variance as applied to Crystal Oscillators

Before we can discuss variance as applied to crystal oscillators we need to understand what a Variance is, or is trying to achieve. In simple terms variance tries to put a meaningful figure 'to what actually receive’ against ‘what we expect to receive'. It is, simply, a mathematical formula applied to a set of data points / samples / readings which are usually collected over a specified period of time.

icon Download Variance as applied to Crystal Oscillators application note here (289.47 kB)

 

Glossary

Crystal (X)

Crystal resonator
At the heart of the XO, VCXO, TCXO and OCXO product is quartz crystal (X).

Crystal Oscillator (XO)
Generally XOs are lower in cost  than TCXOs as they do not have temperature compensation. They are simply quartz crystals combined with basic oscillation circuitry. XOs can offer high frequencies with low performance. They are typically used in telecommunication networks and other broadband applications.

Femtocell
A small cellular base station that plugs into an existing  internet connection and provides strong mobile signal in the home. (See also Small cell definition).

High reliability
In some industries reliability and high precision performance are critical.
Rakon’s high reliability solutions are found in space, defence and industrial applications which require the most stringent performance criteria.

Oven Controlled Crystal Oscillator (OCXO)
OCXOs are used in applications where precise reference clocks are needed to secure high volume data traffic. Stabilities can be as tight as less than 1 part per billion (ppb). OCXOs are generally more expensive, physically larger and consume a lot more power than a TCXO. Used in telecom infrastructure, space and defence applications.

Parts per billion (ppb)
A measure of accuracy. In Rakon’s OCXO products the timing accuracy is often measured in ppb. One ppb is,1/1,000 of a ppm which is 1000 times more accurate again or equal to 99.9999999% accuracy.

Parts per million (ppm)
A measure of accuracy. In Rakon’s TCXO, VCXO and XO products the timing accuracy is often measured in ppm. One ppm equals 1/1,000,000 which is equal to 99.9999% accuracy.

Personal Navigation Device (PND)
An in-car, dash mounted, GPS navigation device.

Small cell
A small, lower cost, cellular base station typically installed on lamp posts which provides a limited area coverage compared to conventional (macro)base stations. Small cells are expected to reduce the need for macro stations.
 
Smart Wireless Device (SWD)
A portable device  with added data functionality such as internet access, computing and video capability. Examples include smart phones (such as iPhones, Android phones etc) and tablet PCs (such as iPads).

Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO)
A TCXO is essentially a quartz crystal combined with electronic circuitry to make it oscillate and it also removes much of the error in frequency caused by variations in temperature.

High Stability Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator
High Stability TCXOs are used in high volume, high performance markets such as mobile phone devices where small oscillator size is important. High Stability TCXOs have a typical performance of 0.5 parts per million (ppm) over wide temperature ranges. They are available in sizes as small as 2.0 x 1.6 mm.

Ultra Stable Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator
Many applications demand an even higher level of performance than our high stability TCXOs. Using unique technology, Rakon’s Ultra Stable TCXOs can achieve stabilities better than 100 parts per billion (ppb) over temperature. They are used in telecommunication networks and other high precision applications.

Telecommunications (Telecom) infrastructure
All the equipment which provides global communications networks, both wired and wireless.

Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator (VCXO)
A VCXO is an oscillator designed to have its oscillation frequency changed significantly by a controlled voltage. Customers using high performing OCXOs for base stations and telecom infrastructure also use many VCXOs at different frequencies as part of their timing network requirements. VCXOs can offer much higher frequencies as well as low noise  performance. They are typically used in telecommunication networks.

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Technical Resources

Please see the sub-menus for a list of application notes, fact sheets and a glossary which has been prepared by Rakon in answer to various questions from customers. They are presented here for your reference, should you have any specific questions please contact us at any time: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Disclaimer

These Documents are distributed free by Rakon Limited (RAKON), are provided 'as is' without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of fitness for a purpose, or the warranty of non-infringement. Without limiting the foregoing, RAKON Ltd makes no warranty that:

i.  the document will meet your requirements
ii.  the document will be error-free
iii.  the results that may be obtained from the use of the document will be effective, accurate or reliable
iv.  the quality of the document will meet your expectations

RAKON assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions in the documents.

In no event shall RAKON be liable to you or any third parties for any special, punitive, incidental, indirect or consequential damages of any kind, or any damages whatsoever, including, without limitation, those resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether or not RAKON has been advised of the possibility of such damages, and on any theory of liability, arising out of or in connection with the use of this document.

The use of the document distributed by RAKON is done at your own discretion and risk and with agreement that you will be solely responsible for any damage or loss of data that results from such activities. No advice or information, whether oral or written, obtained by you from RAKON shall create any warranty for the documents.

 

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